distrib > Mageia > cauldron > i586 > by-pkgid > e88b3afc52a49985e81beea4e45473c2 > files > 27


Setting up amavisd-new to run in a chroot jail
2003-03, Mark Martinec
Last updated: 2005-08-11

Preparing system services to run under chroot is not for
inexperienced Unix administrators!

This is not an automated script, but rather a checklist, guidelines
and ideas to help set up an environment in which amavisd-new and
its external utilities can run in a Unix chroot cage (jail) to reduce
the possible security threats and protect the rest of the system.

Details vary greatly from one Unix system to another. The following
examples are based on FreeBSD and Linux, but should be useful for
other Unix systems. Some of the paths are likely to be different.

The following is based on setting a SMTP-based amavisd-new (e.g. to be
use with Postfix or dual-MTA setup). It was tried out with all external
decoding programs, with SpamAssassin and with the following virus scanners:
Clam Antivirus clamscan and clamd, Sophos sweep, SAVI-Perl and Sophie.

If you have Postfix, check its chroot setup script for further hints:
postfix-xxx/examples/chroot-setup/<YOUR-OS> and BASIC_CONFIGURATION_README.

exit   # This is NOT an automatic script!!!
       # Don't execute commands without knowing what they will do!!!

# !!! ESSENTIAL !!!, DO NOT FORGET to cd to your new chroot home directory
# before running commands below, as most of them use relative paths!
umask 0022
mkdir /var/amavis
cd /var/amavis

# make directory structure within the current directory (/var/amavis)
mkdir -p etc dev var/run var/virusmails
mkdir -p usr/bin usr/lib usr/libexec usr/share usr/share/zoneinfo
mkdir -p usr/share/misc usr/share/spamassassin etc/mail/spamassassin
mkdir -p usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl

# optional, depending on template in $*_quarantine_method :
mkdir var/virusmails/spam var/virusmails/virus var/virusmails/banned var/virusmails/badh var/virusmails/archive
chown vscan:vscan var/virusmails/spam var/virusmails/virus var/virusmails/banned var/virusmails/badh var/virusmails/archive

# make devices - adjust MAJOR/MINOR as appropriate ( see ls -l /dev/* )
mknod dev/null    c  2 2   # FreeBSD
mknod dev/null    c  1 3   # Linux?

mknod dev/random  c  1 8   # Linux?
mknod dev/urandom c  1 9   # Linux?
mknod dev/urandom c 45 2   # OpenBSD ?
mknod dev/random  c  2 3   # FreeBSD ?
mknod dev/random  c  244 0 # FreeBSD5.4
ln -s dev/random dev/urandom  # FreeBSD

# some external programs may need these:
mknod dev/zero    c 2 12   # FreeBSD,  OpenBSD
mknod dev/stdin   c 22 0   # FreeBSD?, OpenBSD
mknod dev/stdout  c 22 1   # FreeBSD?, OpenBSD
mknod dev/stderr  c 22 2   # FreeBSD?, OpenBSD

# NOTE: the file system where dev/null and other device files will reside
#       must NOT be mounted with "nodev" option (/etc/fstab) !

# make a symbolic link so that chrooted processes can refer to the
# home directory as /var/amavis (same as not-chrooted), and need not have
# to handle it differently (i.e. referring to it as  / )
ln -s / var/amavis
# actually, the following is more general:  d=`pwd`; ln -s / $d$d

# copy required binaries to /var/amavis/usr/bin
for j in \
  /usr/bin/file /usr/bin/ar /bin/pax /usr/bin/gzip /usr/bin/bzip2 \
  /usr/local/bin/nomarch /usr/local/bin/arc \
  /usr/local/bin/unrar /usr/local/bin/rar \
  /usr/local/bin/arj /usr/local/bin/unarj \
  /usr/local/bin/zoo /usr/local/bin/lha /usr/local/bin/tnef \
  /usr/local/bin/lzop /usr/local/bin/freeze \
  /usr/local/bin/rpm2cpio /usr/local/bin/ripole /usr/local/bin/cabextract \
  /usr/local/bin/clamscan /usr/local/bin/sweep /usr/local/sbin/sophie \
  /usr/local/bin/dccproc /usr/local/bin/pyzor
do cp -p $j usr/bin/; done

# copy needed /etc files to /var/amavis/etc
for j in \
  /etc/protocols /etc/services /etc/netconfig /etc/hosts \
  /etc/group /etc/passwd /etc/resolv.conf /etc/localtime \
  /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/svc.conf /etc/host.conf
do cp -p $j etc/; done

#   It is likely that the /etc/passwd file is not even needed in the jail.
#   Whether it is needed or not depends on external programs used for virus
#   and spam checks. Even when the /etc/passwd file in jail is needed, it
#   need not provide most regular system usernames and should not provide
#   their valid passwords; a heavily stripped down or faked version of the
#   file in the jail suffices for most purposes; also, there is hardly
#   any need for UID 0 usernames (e.g. root) in the chrooted /etc/passwd
#   file and such usernames are to be avoided.

# copy time zones data /usr/share/zoneinfo (or perhaps /usr/lib/zoneinfo)
cp -pR /usr/share/zoneinfo usr/share/  # FreeBSD

# copy shared libraries to /var/amavis/lib
#   (check:  ldd /var/amavis/usr/bin/*  to see which ones are needed)

ln -s usr/lib .
ln -s usr/libexec .

for j in \
  /usr/lib/* /usr/lib/* /usr/lib/* \
  /usr/lib/* /usr/lib/* \
  /usr/lib/* /usr/lib/* \
  /usr/lib/* /usr/local/lib/* \
  /usr/local/lib/* /usr/local/lib/*
do cp -p $j usr/lib/; done
cp -p /usr/libexec/ usr/libexec/

for j in \
  /lib/ /lib/ /lib/ \
  /lib/ /lib/ /lib/libnss_*.so* \
  /lib/ /usr/lib/ \
  /usr/lib/ /usr/lib/ /lib/libdb*.so* \
  /usr/local/lib/ /usr/local/lib/
do cp -p $j lib/; done

# UTF8 data files needed by Perl Unicode support:
cp -pR /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.1/unicore usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
# on OpenBSD 3.8 that would be something like:
#   cp -pR /usr/libdata/perl5/unicore/ usr/libdata/perl5/

# needed by SpamAssassin:

cp -p  /etc/mail/spamassassin/{*.pre,*.cf} etc/mail/spamassassin/
cp -pR /usr/local/share/spamassassin usr/share/  # FreeBSD
cp -pR /usr/share/spamassassin       usr/share/  # Linux

# Razor2 (if called from SpamAssassin):
echo 'debuglevel = 0' >>/etc/razor-agent.conf
cp /etc/razor-agent.conf etc/

# magic files needed by file(1). Different versions and installations expect
# magic files in different locations. Use the most recent version of file(1)
# and check its documentation. Some usual locations are:
cp -p /usr/local/share/file/*  usr/local/share/file/
cp -p /usr/share/misc/magic*   usr/share/misc/
cp -p /usr/share/magic         usr/share/

# needed by AV scanners (ClamAV)
mkdir -p var/db/clamav
cp -pR /var/db/clamav var/db/
cp /usr/local/bin/freshclam /usr/local/sbin/clamd usr/bin/
cp /usr/local/etc/clamd.conf etc/
# Start clamd and freshclam:
#   chroot -u vscan /var/amavis /usr/sbin/clamd
#   chroot -u vscan /var/amavis /usr/bin/freshclam -d \
#     -c 4 --log-verbose --datadir=/usr/local/share/clam \
#     -l /var/log/clam-update.log

# needed by AV scanners (Sophos)
mkdir -p usr/local/sav
cp -pR /usr/local/sav usr/local/

mkdir -p home var/db/amavis scratch/tmp-am scratch/tmp-sys
# Subdirectory 'scratch' may reside on a volatile file system (tmpfs)

# set protection and ownership
chown -R root:wheel usr/ dev/ etc/ var/ scratch/
chown    root:wheel .
chown -R vscan:vscan home scratch/tmp-am var/db/amavis var/virusmails
chown -R clamav:clamav var/db/clamav
chmod 751 . scratch
chmod 1777 scratch/tmp-sys
ln -s ../scratch/tmp-sys var/tmp
ln -s scratch/tmp-sys tmp
ln -s scratch/tmp-am  tmp-am
ln -s var/db/amavis db   # for compatibility with traditional location
chmod 666 dev/null
chmod 644 dev/*random

# /etc/passwd: set home directory of user vscan to /var/amavis/home !!!

# Daemonized virus scanners (e.g. Sophie, ClamD) may be
# started in the same chroot jail, or not.  E.g.
#   chroot /var/amavis /usr/bin/sophie -D
# If you want, you may now remove /usr/local/sav and make a link instead,
# to avoid having two copies of Sophos database:
#   ln -s /var/amavis/usr/local/sav /usr/local/sav
# consider:
#   ln -s /var/amavis/var/run/sophie      /var/run/     # Sophie socket
#   ln -s /var/amavis/var/run/  /var/run/

# Programs may be tested individually to see if they are happy
# in the chroot jail:
perl -Te 'use POSIX; $ENV{PATH}="/usr/bin";
         $uid=getpwnam("vscan")   or die "E1:$!";
         chroot "/var/amavis"     or die "E2:$!"; chdir "/";
         POSIX::setuid($uid)      or die "E3:$!";
         open(STDIN,"</dev/null") or die "E4:$!";
         exec qw(file /etc/amavisd.conf) or die "E5:$!"'; echo $?
# or...
#    ... exec qw(file /usr/bin/gzip)   or die "E5:$!"'; echo $?
#    ... exec qw(gzip -d 0.lis.gz)     or die "E5:$!"'; echo $?
#    ... system "gzip 0.lis >0.lis.gz"; printf("E5: %d, %d=0x%x\n",$!,$?,$?)'
#    ... open(STDOUT,">0.lis.gz") or die "E5:$!";
#          exec qw(gzip -c 0.lis) or die "E6:$!"'; echo $
#    ... exec qw(clamscan /etc/resolv.conf) or die "E5:$!"'; echo $?

Edit /var/amavis/etc/amavisd.conf, setting:
  $MYHOME = '/var/amavis';
  $ENV{TMPDIR} = $TEMPBASE = "$MYHOME/tmp-am";
  $daemon_chroot_dir = $MYHOME;
  $helpers_home = "$MYHOME/home";  # prefer $MYHOME clean and owned by root?
  $db_home   = "$MYHOME/var/db/amavis";
  $pid_file  = "$helpers_home/";
  $lock_file = "$helpers_home/amavisd.lock";
  $QUARANTINEDIR = "$MYHOME/var/virusmails";

Logging should preferably be directed to syslog. Configure syslogd to
provide a socket in the amavis jail (option -l on FreeBSD, option -a
on OpenBSD and Linux). Under FreeBSD place something like:
  syslogd_flags="-l /var/amavis/var/run/log -ss"
into /etc/rc.conf .

Because the program starts outside the chroot jail and brings-in all Perl
modules first, there is fortunately no need to make a copy of Perl modules
inside the jail.

If Perl complains about missing modules, add them to the list
in file amavisd:

    fetch_modules('REQUIRED BASIC MODULES', qw(
	Exporter POSIX Fcntl Socket Errno Time::HiRes
	IO::File IO::Socket IO::Wrap IO::Stringy

With earlier version of Perl you might need to add autoloaded modules
to the list, such as:
        auto::POSIX::setgid auto::POSIX::setuid

As SpamAssassin loads its rules files only after chrooting, these need
to be made available in the jail. A common procedure is to tell sa-update
the directory that needs updating:
  # sa-update --updatedir /var/amavis/var/lib/spamassassin/3.003000
and periodically refresh them.

  OpenBSD chroot specifics are described in the document, by Scott Vintinner.

  See note about Net::Server at: