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amavisd-new-2.11.0-7.mga7.noarch.rpm

USING SQL FOR LOOKUPS, LOG/REPORTING AND QUARANTINE
===================================================

This text describes SQL specifics for a PostgreSQL database, and
provides a schema. In most respects it also applies to an SQLite database.

For general aspects of lookups, please see README.lookups.
For general SQL notes and further examples please see README.sql.
For MySQL-specific notes and schema please see README.sql-mysql.

Upgrade note: field quarantine.mail_text should be of data type 'bytea'
and not 'text' as suggested in earlier documentation; this is to prevent
it from being unjustifiably associated with a character set, and to be
able to store any byte value; to convert existing field from type 'text'
to type 'bytea' the following clause may be used:
  ALTER TABLE quarantine ALTER mail_text TYPE bytea
    USING decode(replace(mail_text,'\\','\\\\'),'escape');

Starting with amavisd-new-2.6.0 the fields users.email, mailaddr.email,
and maddr.email should preferably be declared as byte strings (bytea) with
no associated character set (which is what these fields are, according to
RFC 2821) instead of CHAR or VARCHAR. The following clauses convert pre-2.6.0
tables into the now preferred and more universal form:
  ALTER TABLE users    ALTER email TYPE bytea USING decode(email,'escape');
  ALTER TABLE mailaddr ALTER email TYPE bytea USING decode(email,'escape');
  ALTER TABLE maddr    ALTER email TYPE bytea USING decode(email,'escape');
If a data type 'bytea' is chosen for these three fields, the setting
$sql_allow_8bit_address MUST be set to true to let the amavisd program
use the appropriate data type in SQL commands:
  $sql_allow_8bit_address = 1; # maddr.email: VARCHAR (0), VARBINARY/BYTEA (1)
otherwise PostgreSQL will complain with:
  'types bytea and character varying cannot be matched'
when amavisd tries to execute SQL commands.

Starting with amavisd-new-2.7.0, three fields need to be added
to table 'msgrcpt', and one to table 'msgs':
  ALTER TABLE msgrcpt ADD COLUMN rseqnum     integer  DEFAULT 0   NOT NULL;
  ALTER TABLE msgrcpt ADD COLUMN content     char(1)  DEFAULT ' ' NOT NULL;
  ALTER TABLE msgrcpt ADD COLUMN is_local    char(1)  DEFAULT ' ' NOT NULL;
  ALTER TABLE msgs    ADD COLUMN originating char(1)  DEFAULT ' ' NOT NULL;

Table 'policy' received a couple of new optional fields with 2.7.0, and
dropped one field. As all fields in this table are optional and any extra
field is just ignored by amavisd, it is not necessary to update this table
unless one really needs these new fields. The following should adjust
a pre-2.7.0 schema:
  ALTER TABLE policy  ADD COLUMN unchecked_lover     char(1) default NULL;
  ALTER TABLE policy  ADD COLUMN spam_tag3_level     real default NULL;
  ALTER TABLE policy  ADD COLUMN spam_subject_tag3   varchar(64) default NULL;
  ALTER TABLE policy  ADD COLUMN disclaimer_options  varchar(64) default NULL;
  ALTER TABLE policy  ADD COLUMN forward_method      varchar(64) default NULL;
  ALTER TABLE policy  ADD COLUMN sa_userconf         varchar(64) default NULL;
  ALTER TABLE policy  ADD COLUMN sa_username         varchar(64) default NULL;
  ALTER TABLE policy DROP COLUMN spam_modifies_subj;

If you need to create a primary key on table msgrcpt for some reason
(clustering perhaps?), try something like:
  UPDATE msgrcpt SET rseqnum=1+floor(999999999*random()) WHERE rseqnum=0;
  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX msgrcpt_idx_primary
    ON msgrcpt (partition_tag,mail_id,rseqnum);

Also, fields mail_id and secret_id should be treated case-sensitively, so
data types char or varchar (as suggested by versions before 2.7.0) should be
avoided - a suitable type is bytea. Moreover, starting with version 2.7.0
the size of mail_id is configurable through a setting $mail_id_size_bits,
so the previous varchar(12) may not suffice if the size is increased from
its default of 72 bytes (12 characters). The following clauses convert the
data type of affected fields from varchar or char to bytea:
  ALTER TABLE msgs ALTER mail_id   TYPE bytea USING decode(mail_id,'escape'),
                   ALTER secret_id DROP DEFAULT,
                   ALTER secret_id TYPE bytea USING decode(secret_id,'escape'),
                   ALTER secret_id SET DEFAULT '';
  ALTER TABLE msgrcpt
                   ALTER mail_id  TYPE bytea USING decode(mail_id,'escape');
  ALTER TABLE quarantine
                   ALTER mail_id  TYPE bytea USING decode(mail_id,'escape');



Version of Perl module DBD::Pg 1.48 or higher should be used;

Short installation notes for PostgreSQL 8.2 are available at:
  http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.2/interactive/install-short.html

In short: run: 'initdb -D ...' as user postgres, then edit pg_hba.conf
providing restricted access to database, create users and create databases.

Something like the following may be placed into pg_hba.conf :

# TYPE  DATABASE    USER        CIDR-ADDRESS          METHOD
#
# amavis lookups:
local   mail_prefs  vscan                             md5
host    mail_prefs  vscan       127.0.0.1/32          md5
host    mail_prefs  vscan       ::1/128               md5
#
# amavis logging and pen pals:
local   mail_log    vscan                             md5
host    mail_log    vscan       127.0.0.1/32          md5
host    mail_log    vscan       ::1/128               md5
#
# spamassassin Bayes and AWL databases:
local   mail_bayes  vscan                             md5
host    mail_bayes  vscan       127.0.0.1/32          md5
host    mail_bayes  vscan       ::1/128               md5
local   mail_awl    vscan                             md5
host    mail_awl    vscan       127.0.0.1/32          md5
host    mail_awl    vscan       ::1/128               md5


Create an SQL username (role) for use by amavisd, e.g. vscan:
  $ createuser -U pgsql -S -D -R -P -e vscan

Create databases for amavisd:
  $ createdb -U pgsql mail_prefs
  $ createdb -U pgsql mail_log

and optionally databases for SpamAssassin:
  $ createdb -U pgsql mail_bayes
  $ createdb -U pgsql mail_awl

The provided schema can be cut/pasted or fed directly into the client program
to create a database. The '--' introduces comments according to SQL specs.

Populate databases using the schema below:
  $ psql -U vscan mail_prefs <...
  $ psql -U vscan mail_log   <...
(for SpamAssassin database schema see its documentation: sql/README*)


Something like the following can be placed into amavisd.conf
(supplying correct passwords):

  @lookup_sql_dsn =
   ([ 'DBI:Pg:database=mail_prefs', 'vscan', 'LK40.gtklkKK' ]);

  @storage_sql_dsn =
   ([ 'DBI:Pg:database=mail_log',   'vscan', 'LK40.gtklkKK' ]);

Equivalent settings for AWL and Bayes databases belong to a SpamAssassin's
configuration file local.cf, according to SpamAssassin documentation.
Amavisd and SpamAssassin need not use the same username or password,
nor do they need to reside on the same SQL server.


SQLite notes:
  - use INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT instead of SERIAL;
  - SQLite is well suited for lookups database, but is not appropriate
    for @storage_sql_dsn due to coarse lock granularity;

CREATE TABLE policy (
  id            serial PRIMARY KEY, -- 'id' is the _only_ required field
  policy_name   varchar(32),        -- not used by amavisd-new, a comment

  virus_lover           char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N
  spam_lover            char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N
  unchecked_lover       char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N
  banned_files_lover    char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N
  bad_header_lover      char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N

  bypass_virus_checks   char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N
  bypass_spam_checks    char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N
  bypass_banned_checks  char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N
  bypass_header_checks  char(1) default NULL,     -- Y/N

  virus_quarantine_to      varchar(64) default NULL,
  spam_quarantine_to       varchar(64) default NULL,
  banned_quarantine_to     varchar(64) default NULL,
  unchecked_quarantine_to  varchar(64) default NULL,
  bad_header_quarantine_to varchar(64) default NULL,
  clean_quarantine_to      varchar(64) default NULL,
  archive_quarantine_to    varchar(64) default NULL,

  spam_tag_level  real default NULL, -- higher score inserts spam info headers
  spam_tag2_level real default NULL, -- inserts 'declared spam' header fields
  spam_tag3_level real default NULL, -- inserts 'blatant spam' header fields
  spam_kill_level real default NULL, -- higher score triggers evasive actions
                                     -- e.g. reject/drop, quarantine, ...
                                     -- (subject to final_spam_destiny setting)

  spam_dsn_cutoff_level        real default NULL,
  spam_quarantine_cutoff_level real default NULL,

  addr_extension_virus      varchar(64) default NULL,
  addr_extension_spam       varchar(64) default NULL,
  addr_extension_banned     varchar(64) default NULL,
  addr_extension_bad_header varchar(64) default NULL,

  warnvirusrecip      char(1)     default NULL, -- Y/N
  warnbannedrecip     char(1)     default NULL, -- Y/N
  warnbadhrecip       char(1)     default NULL, -- Y/N
  newvirus_admin      varchar(64) default NULL,
  virus_admin         varchar(64) default NULL,
  banned_admin        varchar(64) default NULL,
  bad_header_admin    varchar(64) default NULL,
  spam_admin          varchar(64) default NULL,
  spam_subject_tag    varchar(64) default NULL,
  spam_subject_tag2   varchar(64) default NULL,
  spam_subject_tag3   varchar(64) default NULL,
  message_size_limit  integer     default NULL, -- max size in bytes, 0 disable
  banned_rulenames    varchar(64) default NULL, -- comma-separated list of ...
        -- names mapped through %banned_rules to actual banned_filename tables
  disclaimer_options  varchar(64) default NULL,
  forward_method      varchar(64) default NULL,
  sa_userconf         varchar(64) default NULL,
  sa_username         varchar(64) default NULL
);

-- local users
CREATE TABLE users (
  id         serial  PRIMARY KEY,  -- unique id
  priority   integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 7,  -- sort field, 0 is low prior.
  policy_id  integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 1 CHECK (policy_id >= 0) REFERENCES policy(id),
  email      bytea   NOT NULL UNIQUE,     -- email address, non-rfc2822-quoted
  fullname   varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL    -- not used by amavisd-new
  -- local   char(1)      -- Y/N  (optional, see SQL section in README.lookups)
);

-- any e-mail address (non- rfc2822-quoted), external or local,
-- used as senders in wblist
CREATE TABLE mailaddr (
  id         serial  PRIMARY KEY,
  priority   integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 9,  -- 0 is low priority
  email      bytea   NOT NULL UNIQUE
);

-- per-recipient whitelist and/or blacklist,
-- puts sender and recipient in relation wb  (white or blacklisted sender)
CREATE TABLE wblist (
  rid        integer NOT NULL CHECK (rid >= 0) REFERENCES users(id),
  sid        integer NOT NULL CHECK (sid >= 0) REFERENCES mailaddr(id),
  wb         varchar(10) NOT NULL,  -- W or Y / B or N / space=neutral / score
  PRIMARY KEY (rid,sid)
);

-- grant usage rights:
GRANT select ON policy   TO amavis;
GRANT select ON users    TO amavis;
GRANT select ON mailaddr TO amavis;
GRANT select ON wblist   TO amavis;


-- R/W part of the dataset (optional)
--   May reside in the same or in a separate database as lookups database;
--   REQUIRES SUPPORT FOR TRANSACTIONS; specified in @storage_sql_dsn
--
--  Please create additional indexes on keys when needed, or drop suggested
--  ones as appropriate to optimize queries needed by a management application.
--  See your database documentation for further optimization hints.

-- provide unique id for each e-mail address, avoids storing copies
CREATE TABLE maddr (
  id         serial       PRIMARY KEY,
  partition_tag integer   DEFAULT 0,   -- see $partition_tag
  email      bytea        NOT NULL,    -- full e-mail address
  domain     varchar(255) NOT NULL,    -- only domain part of the email address
                                       -- with subdomain fields in reverse
  CONSTRAINT part_email UNIQUE (partition_tag,email)
);

-- information pertaining to each processed message as a whole;
-- NOTE: records with a NULL msgs.content should be ignored by utilities,
--   as such records correspond to messages just being processed, or were lost
CREATE TABLE msgs (
  partition_tag integer     DEFAULT 0,  -- see $partition_tag
  mail_id     bytea         NOT NULL,   -- long-term unique mail id, dflt 12 ch
  secret_id   bytea         DEFAULT '', -- authorizes release of mail_id, 12 ch
  am_id       varchar(20)   NOT NULL,   -- id used in the log
  time_num    integer NOT NULL CHECK (time_num >= 0),
                                        -- rx_time: seconds since Unix epoch
  time_iso timestamp WITH TIME ZONE NOT NULL,-- rx_time: ISO8601 UTC ascii time
  sid         integer NOT NULL CHECK (sid >= 0), -- sender: maddr.id
  policy      varchar(255)  DEFAULT '', -- policy bank path (like macro %p)
  client_addr varchar(255)  DEFAULT '', -- SMTP client IP address (IPv4 or v6)
  size        integer NOT NULL CHECK (size >= 0), -- message size in bytes
  originating char(1) DEFAULT ' ' NOT NULL,  -- sender from inside or auth'd
  content     char(1),                   -- content type: V/B/U/S/Y/M/H/O/T/C
    -- virus/banned/unchecked/spam(kill)/spammy(tag2)/
    -- /bad-mime/bad-header/oversized/mta-err/clean
    -- is NULL on partially processed mail
    -- (prior to 2.7.0 the CC_SPAMMY was logged as 's', now 'Y' is used;
    --- to avoid a need for case-insenstivity in queries)
  quar_type  char(1),                   -- quarantined as: ' '/F/Z/B/Q/M/L
                                        --  none/file/zipfile/bsmtp/sql/
                                        --  /mailbox(smtp)/mailbox(lmtp)
  quar_loc   varchar(255)  DEFAULT '',  -- quarantine location (e.g. file)
  dsn_sent   char(1),                   -- was DSN sent? Y/N/q (q=quenched)
  spam_level real,                      -- SA spam level (no boosts)
  message_id varchar(255)  DEFAULT '',  -- mail Message-ID header field
  from_addr  varchar(255)  DEFAULT '',  -- mail From header field,    UTF8
  subject    varchar(255)  DEFAULT '',  -- mail Subject header field, UTF8
  host       varchar(255)  NOT NULL,    -- hostname where amavisd is running
  CONSTRAINT msgs_partition_mail UNIQUE (partition_tag,mail_id),
  PRIMARY KEY (partition_tag,mail_id)
--FOREIGN KEY (sid) REFERENCES maddr(id) ON DELETE RESTRICT
);
CREATE INDEX msgs_idx_sid      ON msgs (sid);
CREATE INDEX msgs_idx_mess_id  ON msgs (message_id); -- useful with pen pals
CREATE INDEX msgs_idx_time_iso ON msgs (time_iso);
CREATE INDEX msgs_idx_time_num ON msgs (time_num);   -- optional

-- per-recipient information related to each processed message;
-- NOTE: records in msgrcpt without corresponding msgs.mail_id record are
--  orphaned and should be ignored and eventually deleted by external utilities
CREATE TABLE msgrcpt (
  partition_tag integer DEFAULT 0,  -- see $partition_tag
  mail_id    bytea    NOT NULL,     -- (must allow duplicates)
  rseqnum    integer  DEFAULT 0   NOT NULL, -- recip's enumeration within msg
  rid        integer  NOT NULL,     -- recipient: maddr.id (duplicates allowed)
  is_local   char(1)  DEFAULT ' ' NOT NULL, -- recip is: Y=local, N=foreign
  content    char(1)  DEFAULT ' ' NOT NULL, -- content type V/B/U/S/Y/M/H/O/T/C
  ds         char(1)  NOT NULL,     -- delivery status: P/R/B/D/T
                                    -- pass/reject/bounce/discard/tempfail
  rs         char(1)  NOT NULL,     -- release status: initialized to ' '
  bl         char(1)  DEFAULT ' ',  -- sender blacklisted by this recip
  wl         char(1)  DEFAULT ' ',  -- sender whitelisted by this recip
  bspam_level real,                 -- per-recipient (total) spam level
  smtp_resp  varchar(255) DEFAULT '', -- SMTP response given to MTA
  CONSTRAINT msgrcpt_partition_mail_rseq UNIQUE (partition_tag,mail_id,rseqnum),
  PRIMARY KEY (partition_tag,mail_id,rseqnum)
--FOREIGN KEY (rid)     REFERENCES maddr(id)     ON DELETE RESTRICT,
--FOREIGN KEY (mail_id) REFERENCES msgs(mail_id) ON DELETE CASCADE
);
CREATE INDEX msgrcpt_idx_mail_id  ON msgrcpt (mail_id);
CREATE INDEX msgrcpt_idx_rid      ON msgrcpt (rid);

-- mail quarantine in SQL, enabled by $*_quarantine_method='sql:'
-- NOTE: records in quarantine without corresponding msgs.mail_id record are
--  orphaned and should be ignored and eventually deleted by external utilities
CREATE TABLE quarantine (
  partition_tag integer  DEFAULT 0,      -- see $partition_tag
  mail_id    bytea   NOT NULL,           -- long-term unique mail id
  chunk_ind  integer NOT NULL CHECK (chunk_ind >= 0), -- chunk number, 1..
  mail_text  bytea   NOT NULL,           -- store mail as chunks of octects
  PRIMARY KEY (partition_tag,mail_id,chunk_ind)
--FOREIGN KEY (mail_id) REFERENCES msgs(mail_id) ON DELETE CASCADE
);

-- field msgrcpt.rs is primarily intended for use by quarantine management
-- software; the value assigned by amavisd is a space;
-- a short _preliminary_ list of possible values:
--   'V' => viewed (marked as read)
--   'R' => released (delivered) to this recipient
--   'p' => pending (a status given to messages when the admin received the
--                   request but not yet released; targeted to banned parts)
--   'D' => marked for deletion; a cleanup script may delete it

-- grant usage rights:
GRANT select,insert,update,delete ON maddr        TO amavis;
GRANT usage,update                ON maddr_id_seq TO amavis;
GRANT select,insert,update,delete ON msgs         TO amavis;
GRANT select,insert,update,delete ON msgrcpt      TO amavis;
GRANT select,insert,update,delete ON quarantine   TO amavis;


Some examples of a query:

-- mail from last two minutes:
SELECT
  now()-time_iso AS age, SUBSTRING(policy,1,2) as pb,
  msgrcpt.content AS c, dsn_sent as dsn, ds, bspam_level AS level, size,
  SUBSTRING(convert_from(sender.email,'UTF8'),1,18) AS s,
  SUBSTRING(recip.email,1,18)  AS r,
  SUBSTRING(msgs.subject,1,10) AS subj
  FROM msgs LEFT JOIN msgrcpt         ON msgs.mail_id=msgrcpt.mail_id
            LEFT JOIN maddr AS sender ON msgs.sid=sender.id
            LEFT JOIN maddr AS recip  ON msgrcpt.rid=recip.id
  WHERE msgrcpt.content IS NOT NULL AND now() - time_iso < INTERVAL '2 minutes'
  ORDER BY msgs.time_num DESC;

-- clean messages ordered by count, grouped by domain:
SELECT count(*) as cnt, avg(bspam_level), sender.domain
  FROM msgs
  LEFT JOIN msgrcpt ON msgs.mail_id=msgrcpt.mail_id
  LEFT JOIN maddr AS sender ON msgs.sid=sender.id
  LEFT JOIN maddr AS recip ON msgrcpt.rid=recip.id
  WHERE msgrcpt.content='C'
  GROUP BY sender.domain ORDER BY cnt DESC LIMIT 50;

-- top spamy domains with >10 messages, sorted by spam average,
-- grouped by domain:
SELECT count(*) as cnt, avg(bspam_level) as spam_avg, sender.domain
  FROM msgs
  LEFT JOIN msgrcpt ON msgs.mail_id=msgrcpt.mail_id
  LEFT JOIN maddr AS sender ON msgs.sid=sender.id
  LEFT JOIN maddr AS recip ON msgrcpt.rid=recip.id
  WHERE bspam_level IS NOT NULL
  GROUP BY sender.domain HAVING count(*) > 10
  ORDER BY spam_avg DESC LIMIT 50;

-- sender domains with >100 messages, sorted on sender.domain:
SELECT count(*) as cnt, avg(bspam_level) as spam_avg, sender.domain
  FROM msgs
  LEFT JOIN msgrcpt ON msgs.mail_id=msgrcpt.mail_id
  LEFT JOIN maddr AS sender ON msgs.sid=sender.id
  LEFT JOIN maddr AS recip ON msgrcpt.rid=recip.id
  GROUP BY sender.domain HAVING count(*) > 100
  ORDER BY sender.domain DESC LIMIT 100;




EXAMPLE of a log/report/quarantine database housekeeping
========================================================

Using a changing partition_tag, perhaps by using an ISO 8601 week number
(value 1 to 53) as a partition_tag:

  $partition_tag =
    sub { my($msginfo)=@_; sprintf("%02d",iso8601_week($msginfo->rx_time)) };

allows for probably the fastest method of purging old records, e.g.:

DELETE FROM msgs       WHERE partition_tag >= 13 AND partition_tag <= 23;
DELETE FROM msgrcpt    WHERE partition_tag >= 13 AND partition_tag <= 23;
DELETE FROM quarantine WHERE partition_tag >= 13 AND partition_tag <= 23;
DELETE FROM maddr      WHERE partition_tag >= 13 AND partition_tag <= 23;


Alternatively, purge records from table msgs by their creation time:

DELETE FROM msgs WHERE time_iso < now() - INTERVAL '3 weeks';
DELETE FROM msgs WHERE time_iso < now() - INTERVAL '1 h' AND content IS NULL;

Optionally certain content types may be given shorter lifetime:

DELETE FROM msgs WHERE time_iso < now() - INTERVAL '1 week'
  AND (content='V' OR (content='S' AND spam_level > 20));

and then delete unreferenced records from tables msgrcpt, quarantine,
and maddr:

DELETE FROM msgrcpt WHERE mail_id IN
  (SELECT mail_id FROM msgrcpt LEFT JOIN msgs USING(mail_id)
   WHERE msgs.mail_id IS NULL);

DELETE FROM quarantine WHERE mail_id IN
  (SELECT mail_id FROM quarantine LEFT JOIN msgs USING(mail_id)
   WHERE msgs.mail_id IS NULL);

DELETE FROM maddr
  WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM msgs    WHERE sid=id)
    AND NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM msgrcpt WHERE rid=id);

On more recent testings, the following 'DELETE FROM maddr' seems
to be faster from the one above by a factor of 1.5 to 2, and is
functionally equivalent:

DELETE FROM maddr WHERE id IN (
  SELECT id FROM maddr LEFT JOIN (
    SELECT sid AS id, 1 AS f FROM msgs UNION ALL
    SELECT rid AS id, 1 AS f FROM msgrcpt
  ) AS u USING(id) WHERE u.f IS NULL);

Check also a thread 'Faster purging of SQL logging database'
(2007-06) on the amavis-user mailing list, archived at:
  http://marc.info/?t=118190428300003



The third option for purging old records is to use:

  FOREIGN KEY ... ON DELETE CASCADE

on tables msgrcpt and quarantine, in which case these records will
be deleted automatically when a corresponding record in table msgs
is deleted. This seems to be the slowest method.